A Beginner’s Guide To The Quantum Computing
Big things happen when computers get smaller. Or faster. And quantum computing is about chasing perhaps the biggest performance boost in the history of technology. The basic idea is to smash some barriers that limit the speed of existing computers by harnessing the counter-intuitive physics of subatomic scales.
What Is Quantum Computing ?
Quantum computing is an area of computing focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the behavior of energy and material on the atomic and subatomic levels. Quantum computers could spur the development of new breakthroughs in science, medications to save lives, machine learning methods to diagnose illnesses sooner, materials to make more efficient devices and structures, financial strategies to live well in retirement, and algorithms to quickly direct resources such as ambulances. But what exactly is quantum computing, and what does it take to achieve these quantum breakthroughs ?
Fundamental Of Quantum Computing
Classical computers that we use today can only encode information in bits that take the value of 1 or 0. This restricts their ability. Quantum computing, on the other hand, uses quantum bits or qubits. It harnesses the unique ability of subatomic participles that allows them to exist in more than one state i.e. a 1 and a 0 at the same time. Superposition and entanglement are two features of quantum physics on which these supercomputers are based. This empowers quantum computers to handle operations at speeds exponentially higher than conventional computers and at much lesser energy consumption.
- Quantum computing is the study of how to use phenomena in quantum physics to create new ways of computing
- The basis of quantum computing is the Qubit. Unlike a normal computer bit, which can be 0 or 1, a Qubit can be either of those, or a superposition of both 0 and 1.
“While the classical computer is very good at calculus, the quantum computer is even better at sorting, finding prime numbers, simulating molecules, and optimization, and thus could open the door to a new computing era.” A Morgan Stanley
All computing systems rely on a fundamental ability to store and manipulate information. Current computers manipulate individual bits, which store information as binary 0 and 1 states. Quantum computers leverage quantum mechanical phenomena to manipulate information. To do this, they rely on quantum bits, or qubits.
Three quantum mechanical properties. Superposition, Entanglement, and Interference are used in quantum computing to manipulate the state of a qubit.
Superposition refers to a combination of states we would ordinarily describe independently. To make a classical analogy, if you play two musical notes at once, what you will hear is a superposition of the two notes.
Entanglement is a famously counter-intuitive quantum phenomenon describing behavior we never see in the classical world. Entangled particles behave together as a system in ways that cannot be explained using classical logic.
Finally, quantum states can undergo interference due to a phenomenon known as phase. Quantum interference can be understood similarly to wave interference; when two waves are in phase, their amplitudes add, and when they are out of phase, their amplitudes cancel.
Look inside a quantum computer
In order to work with qubits for extended periods of time, they must be kept very cold. Any heat in the system can introduce error, which is why quantum computers are designed to create and operate at temperatures near absolute zero.
Here’s a look at how a quantum computer’s dilution refrigerator, made from more than 2,000 components, exploits the mixing properties of two helium isotopes to create such an environment for the qubits inside.
1- Qubit Signal Amplifier
One of two amplifying stages is cooled to a temperature of 4 Kelvin.
2- Input Microwave Lines
Attenuation is applied at each stage in the refrigerator in order to protect qubits from thermal noise during the process of sending control and readout signals to the processor.
3- Superconducting Coaxial Lines
In order to minimize energy loss, the coaxial lines that direct signals between the first and second amplifying stages are made out of superconductors.
4- Cryogenic Isolators
Cryogenic isolators enable qubits signals to go forward while preventing noise from compromising qubit quality.
5- Quantum Amplifiers
Quantum amplifiers inside of a magnetic shield capture and amplify processor readout signals while minimizing noise.
6- Cryoperm Shield
The quantum processor sits inside a shield that protects it from electromagnetic radiation in order to preserve its quality.
Here is the First quantum computer that introduced by IBM.
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