The Beginners A Friendly Guide To Linux OS | Basic Commands

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What is Linux?

This open source cooperation among companies and developers has led to making Linux one of the best ecosystems for use from small digital wristwatches to servers and supercomputers. Based on statistics, there are at least 100 companies and more than 1000 developers who work together for every kernel release. Linux is composed of a kernel, the core control software, plus plenty of libraries and utilities that provide different features. Linux is available through many distributions. These are what we can call Linux flavours. Distributions are groups of specific kernels and programs. The most popular ones include LinuxMint, CentOS, Fedora, Arch, SUSE, Ubuntu, and Red Hat.

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Most Demanded Flavors Of Linux
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Linux Supports

Why Linux is better than other operating systems.

The benefits of using Linux

  • It is easy to learn Linux for beginners
  • The Linux operating systems now offer millions of programs/applications and Linux softwares to choose from, most of them are free!
  • Once you have Linux installed you no longer need an antivirus! Linux is a highly secure system. More so, there is a global development community constantly looking at ways to enhance its security. With each upgrade, the OS becomes more secure and robust
  • Linux freeware is the OS of choice for Server environments due to its stability and reliability (Mega-companies like Amazon, Facebook, and Google use Linux for their Servers). A Linux based server could run non-stop without a reboot for years on end.
  • Linux has a large community online where new users can get information, read FAQs, and ask questions if there are programs or features that you think are not working right. The great thing about open-source is that with plenty of people involved in the OS, there are an unlimited number of resources that you can use and learn from.

Understanding Linux Architecture

  • System Call Interface — A User process can access Kernel space
    through a System Call. When a System Call is performed, arguments
    are passed from User to Kernel space. This is the layer that
    implements basic functions.
  • Kernel Code — This is the architecture-independent code, and can be
    seen in all architectures that Linux supports.
  • Architecture-Dependent Kernel Code — This is the layer for
    platform-specific codes.
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Linux Architecture
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Linux’s Terminal

If we work as developers, we’ve to work with the Linux command line eventually. We’ll look at some basic Linux commands we should know to work with the Linux command line.

Why should one learn the Linux command line?

  • You can control computers and servers remotely.
    Network protocols like SSH and Telnet allow you to remotely connect to computers on a network, but they only provide you with the shell and not the graphical interface. Therefore you can use these protocols only if you are familiar with the shell.
  • You can install Ubuntu Linux without anyone’s help
    Ubuntu Linux is a Linux distribution which scares many beginners because of its installation method. To install Ubuntu Linux you need to do all the steps manually from disk partitioning to user creation, using the shell. You need to be very good at the Linux shell to install Ubuntu Linux.
  • You can get paid to configure and administer Linux Servers.
    Most companies have a job posting titled, “Linux System Administrator”. The role of the person at this position is to maintain the Linux computers and make changes and configurations to them as per the requirements. The person at this role has to be very good at the Linux Shell and should know all the commands required to configure a Linux system.

The most useful basic commands

pwd

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mkdir

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cd

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touch

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nano

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cat

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rm

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cp

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mv

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cal

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ls

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rmdir

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create file recursively

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create folder recursively

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remove folder recursively

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alias

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apt-get moo

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convert

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morgify

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date

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for access the root path

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grep

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info

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man

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create file to write a text on terminal

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whatis

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whereis

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wget

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apt-get update

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apt-get upgrade

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apt-get install

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apt-get remove — purge

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Side notes and points to be remembered:

  • Care should be taken while writing paths in Linux because ‘boot’ and ‘/boot’ are two different folders.
  • The only way to master the Linux shell is by spending time in it and using it every day. It is an added advantage if your main OS is Linux.
  • Anything that you do in the Linux OS, try to find a way to do the same thing but from within the shell. Stack Overflow is a great place to get your Linux questions answered.

Conclusion

Linux has lots of commands that we should know about. We should know how to traverse directories, list files, and copy/moves files. Also, knowing how to download files is also handy.

Feel free to point out any mistakes you find, constructive criticism does no harm.

Written by

Full Stack Developer | Software Engineer

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